This is the Appomattox sculpture in Alexandria Virginia, a monument made in 1889 to
honor Alexandria’s Confederate dead within the North American nation warfare.
Since then, it’s been at the middle of debates concerning the employment of public house.
People wrestle with the choice to honor the history of these UN agency supported the Southern
Confederacy’s secession from the Union, that was mostly so as to continue racialized

Opponents have argued that the sculpture stands as a testament to intolerance and racism,
and that though the sculpture remains in camera closely-held by the United Daughters of the Confederacy,
the fact that it’s located on public land implies that it ought to be torn down as a result of
it represents a racist and harmful viewpoint.
Those in favor of keeping the sculpture wherever it’s a remark that the Confederacy, no matter
how out-of-date and incorrect its stances, was a neighborhood folks history which this history
shouldn’t be forgotten.

So these days I’ll open up the oral communication to seem at however monuments like this one represent
the US’s struggle to accurately describe its additional painful histories.
I’ll discuss why such a big amount of Confederate and alternative warfare monuments were designed between
the late nineteenth century and therefore the half of the twentieth century, and what impulses drove
their construction throughout those crucial years once the war.
Appomattox notably doesn’t show a picture of a military general or Confederate politician.
Rather it’s a straightforward rank and file soldier together with his hat in his hand and his head bowed
in defeat.

On the bottom square measure, the names of the Alexandrians UN agency died fighting for the Confederacy.
This gesture isn’t uncommon in monuments of fallen troopers, however, its subject has created
it causes for public concern.
Claims that Confederate icon square measure substitutable with “Southern Heritage” has raised well
founded questions on “whose heritage” and “who will this history support or vilify?”
And that’s in massive half as a result of in construction monuments once a conflict, it’s extremely
unusual for the aspect that definitively lost to be honored, not to mention to occupy public

Which is why the image of Appomattox, with a visibly defeated Confederate standing
in commemoration of his cause and fallen comrades is sort of uncommon.
Rather than raising the currently disreputable decision that “the South shall rise again” each
his posture and therefore the inscription of the plaque below his feet indicate otherwise.
Around 2015 and 2016 the North American nation magnified the eye it paid to the warfare monuments
scattered across the country conformity Confederate generals and troopers.
Arguments raged on either side of the talk, with proponents of destruction these statues
noting the inflammatory and racist politics of the lads that they were meant to honor.
They conjointly required the immediate removal of Confederate flags from state symbols.
Those in favor of keeping the symbols and statues argued that these signs were indicative
of US history and notwithstanding they were detestable, they ought to not be hidden or forgotten.
As headlines circulated around protesters on either side of the talk, queries started
to arise concerning why the North American nation had most Confederate icon to start with.
When were the statues designed and UN agency funded their construction before they occupied public

And how do monuments flip people into heroes and form the discourse around our
shared national identity?
Well it comes as no surprise that the lion’s share of those symbols sprung into prominence
as monuments and memorials once the war’s conclusion.
From the instant, the warfare all over the North American nation has struggled with a way to narrate its slave
holding past.
But the development of those monuments and memorials came in 2 primary waves that weren’t
directly tied to the official stop fireplace.
In fact, most came at 2 key moments among the 100-year span:
The Post-Reconstruction amount from the Eighties till the Nineteen Twenties
the eve of the North American nation Civil Rights Movement within the Sixties.
It wasn’t a random coincidence that the statues went up throughout those time periods.
As prof Sanford Levinson notes in his book on monuments, quote, “those with political

power among a given society organizes a public house to convey (and so to show the public)
desired political lessons.”
But a part of the viscousness of the discussion around monuments, as Levinson conjointly notes,
is that they aren’t simply philosophical symbols, they conjointly bear the burden of being public

And as he writes concerning monuments as art:
“Art is, among alternative things, each the parcel of and infrequently a weapon in, the culture wars
that course through societies.
This is, of course, very true of public art–the art chosen self-consciously by public
institutions to symbolize the general public order and to drill in its viewers applicable
attitudes toward that order.”
First, we’ve the top of Reconstruction.
New Confederate monuments within the Eighties and Eighteen Nineties were promoting a come back to racism
and institutional slavery.
Reconstruction had spanned from roughly the top of the war till the late decennium.
The period did see transient strides for recently emancipated black voters.
But the top of the time was conjointly marked by associate degree unbelievably swift reversal of the tides
with the increase of the element 104 Klux terrorist organization, resurgent white nationalism, magnified violence (such
as organized lynchings) and reduced rights.
During Reconstruction, once Northern officers remained in temporary management of the war-ravaged
Southern states, the symbols and beliefs of the Confederacy were aloof from public
But because the amount came to an in depth, Northern and Southern officers looked to create political
concessions, most frequently at the expense of black voters.
This enclosed most notably the passing of Jim Crow Laws.
Jim Crow Laws were designed to increase the horrors of institutional slavery in Southern
states beneath a special name.
This meant stopping black voters from balloting, organizing the convict leasing system so as
to force black voters to figure while not pay, and manipulating the system to strip
them of Constitutional rights.
For additional on convict leasing, take care to see out our episode on the origins of personal
So Confederate monuments were operating to market the (at that time) up to date ideologies
of the state.
Namely, a come back to racism and institutional slavery.
It conjointly marked a crucial moment within the history of men UN agency died and fought for the
Confederacy and their families.
Because conjointly around this point the living troopers and their families were aging.
Many had infiltrated berth to continue promoting the official agenda of the Confederacy.
Others turned their eye to establishing non-public organizations that celebrated a authorised
version of the Confederate past.
Enter: the “Cult of the cause.”
In the aftermath of the economic devastation of the war, the thus known as “Cult of the Lost
Cause” became associate degree outlet for white Confederate supporting Southerners to precise cultural
pride in institutional slavery and their “lost means of life.”
A 1999 application created to the National Register of Historic Places notes:
“The Cult of the cause had its roots within the Southern seek for justification and
the need to seek out a substitute for ending within the warfare.
In making an attempt to cope with defeat, Southerners created a picture of the war as a good heroic
A major theme of the Cult of the cause was the clash of 2 civilizations, one inferior
to the opposite….Like tragic heroes, Southerners had waged a noble however doomed struggle to preserve
their superior civilization.
There was a component of chivalry within the means the South had fought, achieving noteworthy
victories against staggering odds.
This was the “Lost Cause” because the late nineteenth century saw it, and a full generation
of Southerners set concerning glorifying and celebrating it.”
But glorification and commemoration of troopers at the conclusion of period of time wasn’t distinctive
to Southern states.
In fact it had been omnipresent throughout the us on either aspect of the Mason Dixon.
In her analysis on monuments of warfare troopers, historian married woman Beetham of the
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, notes that a lot of of the monuments were oversubscribed by New
England makers (like the Monumental Bronze Co. in urban center, CT) at the top of
the nineteenth century.
In a piece for the Washington Post she’s quoted speech communication what percentage of the statues square measure
identical in structure, which corporations were commercialism low-cost pre-fab styles to cities
all over the country while not fixing the looks of the troopers in any respect.
It wasn’t till some Southern cities noticed the replication that little alterations were
made, together with adding slumped Confederate caps.
Another characteristic feature is that the engraving on their belt buckles: with “C.S.” for
Confederate Soldier and “U.S.” for Yank.
As mythologies of the warfare occurred within the public sphere, monuments became significantly
fertile ground for advancing individual political agendas.
The second wave of Confederate monuments designed came within the Nineteen Fifties and Sixties, each to mark
the hundred year day of Southern defeat and conjointly as a symbol of opposition to the twentieth
century’s Civil Rights movement that saw variety of legal victories for black voters.
In fact the South geographical region state grounds became the middle of heated oral presentation in 2015,
when beneath the burden of public outrage state officers united to lower the Confederate

But the flag had solely been enforced within the capitol since 1961, as a stinging rebuke
of the Civil Rights movement.
But though the number of reports coverage of those monuments has begun to fade, statues
like Appomattox et al. still stay in situ round the country.
And in recent numeration, the Southern economic condition Law Center notes that there are:
780 monuments, quite three hundred of that square measure in Georgia, Virginia and North Carolina;
103 public K-12 faculties and 3 faculties named for Robert E. Lee, statesman or
other Confederate icons; eighty counties and cities named for Confederates;
9 determined state holidays in 5 states; and
10 U.S. military bases.
But at the center of this dialogue over monuments could be a larger question concerning however and once we
decide to commemorate history and whose stories square measure told.
Monuments, though they usually fade to the background as we tend to surpass them throughout our busy
days, still carry tremendous historical and up to date weight.
But despite their usually forgettable (or within the case of the subject Soldier statues, generic)
appearances, monuments form the general public narrative of states.
They exemplify however we tend to produce the stories we tend to tell ourselves and every alternative concerning our collective
This conjointly brings to light-weight UN agency history belongs to, by lightness and heroising some whereas
others square measure reviled, harmed, or all at once neglected.
And that’s mostly as a result of those symbols don’t simply mark a selected event or moment.
Rather they elevate one thing by occupying public house, celebrating or harmful the
narratives of individual historical actors, and conveyance into read precisely UN agency history
is supposed to be for.


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