Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common type of eczema, affecting more than 9.6 million children and about 16.5 million adults in the United States. It’s a chronic condition that can come and go for years or throughout life, and can overlap with other types of eczema.
The list of things your body can have an allergic reaction to is long: cats and dogs, certain jewelries, different types of soap, specific plants—they can all spark an overreaction of your immune system, typically the form of a rash.
Just a fast refresher: an allergic reaction occurs once your body perceives a harmless substance—such as certain foods, pollen, or pet dander—as a threat. This causes your system to overreact in an attemptto keep you safe from that substance, even if it’s harmless, per the american Academy of allergy, asthma & immunology (AAAAI). allergic reactionsdo notsimplyhave an effect on the skin—they can also impact the nose, throat, lungs, ears, sinuses, and stomach lining, per the AAAAI.
Atopic dermatitis (eczema) is a condition that makes your skin red and itchy. it is common in kids but can occur at any age. atopic dermatitis is long lasting (chronic) and tends to flare periodically. it may be accompanied byasthma or hay fever.
No cure has been found for atopic dermatitis. but treatments and self-care measures can relieve itching and prevent new outbreaks. for example, it helps to avoid harsh soaps, moisturize your skin regularly, and apply medicated creams or ointments.
How common is atopic dermatitis?
- It affects males and females equally and accounts for 10%-20% of all referrals to dermatologists (doctors who specialize in skin diseases care).
- Atopic dermatitis happens most often in infants and kids, and its onset decreases substantially with age.
- Of those affected, sixty-fifth of patients develop symptoms within the first year of life, and 90th develop symptoms before the age of five.
- Onset after age thirty is rare and often happens once exposure of the skin to harsh conditions.
- People who live in urban areas and climates with low humidity appear to be at an increased risk for developing atopic dermatitis.
- About 100 percent of all infants and young children experience symptoms of the malady.
- Roughly 60% of those infants still have one or a lot of symptoms of atopic dermatitis even after they reach adulthood.
- This means that over fifteen million people in the US have symptoms of the disease
The following are symptoms of eczema, according to the National Eczema Association (NEA):
- Itchy skin
- Sensitive skin
- Dry skin
- Inflamed skin
- Discolored skin
- Rough, scaly, or leathery patches of skin
- Areas of swollen skin
Allergic contact dermatitis
Contact dermatitis sometimes happens on areas of your body that are directly exposed to the reaction-causing substance — for example, along a calf that brushed against poison ivy or under a watchband. The rash usually develops among minutes to hours of exposure and can last 2 to four weeks.
Signs and symptoms of dermatitis include:
- A red rash
- Itching, which can be severe
- Dry, cracked, scaly skin
- Bumps and blisters, typically with oozing and crusting
- Swelling, burning, or tenderness
Who gets allergic contact dermatitis?
Allergic contact dermatitis is common within the general population and in specific employment groups.
It is a lot of common in women than men, mainly because of nickel allergy and, recently, acrylate allergy associated with nail cosmetics.
Many young youngsters are also allergic to nickel.
Contact allergy to topical antibiotics is common in patients over the age of seventy years old.
Allergic contact dermatitis especially common in metal staff, hairdressers, beauticians, health care workers, cleaners, painters, and florists.
Irritant contact dermatitis
Irritant contact dermatitis may cause slightly different symptoms, such as:
- cracking skin due to extreme dryness
- skin that feels stiff or tight
- open sores that form crusts
What causes contact dermatitis?
There are three types of contact dermatitis:
Photocontact dermatitis is less common. It’s a reaction that can occur when the active ingredients in a skin product are exposed to the sun and result in irritation.
What are hives?
Hives, also called urticaria, are itchy, raised welts that are found on the skin. they’re usually red, pink, or flesh-colored, and sometimes they sting or hurt. In most cases, hives square measure caused by an allergic reaction to a medication or food or a reaction to an irritant within the environment.
In several cases, hives are an acute (temporary) drawback that may be alleviated with allergy medications. Most rashes go away on their own. However, chronic (ongoing) cases, yet as hives accompanied by a severe hypersensitive reaction, are larger medical concerns.
Symptoms can last anywhere from minutes to months – or even years.
While they resemble bug bites, hives (also known as urticaria) are completely different in many ways:
Hives can appear on any area of the body; they may change the form, move around, disappear and reappear over short periods of time.
The bumps – red or skin-colored “wheals” with clear edges – usually appear suddenly and go away just as quickly.
Pressing the middle of a red hive makes it turn white – a process called “blanching.”
There are2types of hives – short-lived (acute) and long-term (chronic). Neither is typically life-threatening, though any swelling in the throat or the other symptom that restricts breathing requires immediate emergency care.
Management and Treatment
Researchers have identified many – but not all – of the factors that can cause hives. These include food and other substances you take, such as medications. Some people develop hives just by touching certain items. Some illnesses also cause hives. Here are a few of the most common causes:
- Some food (especially peanuts, eggs, nuts, and shellfish)
- Medications, such as antibiotics (especially penicillin and sulfa), aspirin, and ibuprofen
- Insect stings or bites
- Physical stimuli such as pressure, cold, heat, exercise, or sun exposure
- Blood transfusions
- Bacterial infections, including urinary tract infections and strep throat
- Viral infections, including the common cold, infectious mononucleosis, and hepatitis
- Pet dander
- Some plants