The term dyslexia is used to spot the kids with reading and writing difficulties and don’t the expected progress within the academic field. Most of the students with dyslexia have trouble understanding the letters on the books and when they have trouble in that step; all the other steps become harder.
But these difficulties don’t have anyaffiliation to their overall intelligence. In fact, the dyslexic students might be slow learners butthey’revery fastand creative thinkers with strong reasoning skills. But, there arevarious signs you need tounderstandwhendealing with dyslexic students. They face various difficulties such as:
- Copying contents from the blackboard to the notebook
- Unable to read the sentences as they do not perceive the sound of a letter or combination
- Typical spelling mistakes – they write the words in the way they sound. for instance. showt rather than shout
- Writing – Most of the dyslexic students are good at explaining their thoughts but find it difficult in writing it down.
- Handwriting – they tend to have extremely messy handwriting as they tend to have poor control, tension of completing the work on time and many more.
People with dyslexia are most likely to receive a diagnosis as children or young adults.
Adults who receive this diagnosis have usually had the condition their whole lives. However, a person can acquire dyslexia because of a brain injury.
If a parent, guardian, or teacher suspects that a young person has dyslexia, they should ask about a professional evaluation. The school may be able to help. An early diagnosis is more likely to lead to effective management.
Receiving a dyslexia diagnosis may open the door to more support for the child or adolescent. they may become eligible for special education services, support programs, and services in colleges and universities.
According to the International Dyslexia Association, diagnostic evaluations typically cover the following areas:
- background information, including family history and early development
- oral language skills
- word recognition
- fluency skills
- reading comprehension
- vocabulary knowledge
- decoding, or the ability to read new words using letter-sound knowledge
- phonological processing, or how the brain processes the sounds of words
During the assessment, the examiner will aim to rule out other conditions that can have similar symptoms. Examples include vision issues, hearing impairment, a lack of instruction, and social and economic factors.
What tests diagnose dyslexia?
Dyslexia is a difficult disorder to diagnose. There are many factors the psychologist or other health professional reviews to diagnose the disability. The testing determines the child’s functional reading level and compares it to reading potential, which is evaluated by an intelligence test. All aspects of the reading process are examined to pinpoint where the breakdown is occurring. The testing further assesses how a child takes in and processes information and what the child does with the information. The tests determine whether a child learns better by
- hearing information (auditory),
- looking at information (visual), or
- doing something (kinesthetic).
They also assess whether a child performs better when allowed to give information (output), by saying something (oral), or by doing something with their hands (tactile-kinesthetic). The tests also evaluate how all of these sensory systems (modalities) work in conjunction with each other.
The tests administered are standardized and are considered highly reliable.
- The child should not feel as if there is something wrong because testing is occurring.
- Many of the tests use a game-type or puzzle format which can help make the child feel more comfortable.
- Children should get a good night’s sleep prior to the testing and have a good breakfast.
- If the testing is done in a school setting, the teacher can prepare the child by talking about the person who will come and do special work with the child.
- With young children, the psychologist may visit the child’s classroom before the testing so that the child is familiar with him.
- Whether or not the testing is done at school, the parent may want to talk to their child about a new person coming to work with them. However, parents should not try to coach the child concerning the testing. It is recommended that parents not be present during the testing.
A standard battery of tests can include, but is not limited to, the following:
- Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III)
- Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (KABC)
- Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale
- Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery
- Peabody Individual Achievement Tests-Revised (PIAT)
- Wechsler Individual Achievement Tests (WIAT)
- Kaufman Tests of Educational Achievement (KTEA)
- Bender Gestalt Test of Visual Motor Perception
- Beery Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration
- Motor-Free Visual Perception Test
- Visual Aural Digit Span Test (VADS)
- Test of Auditory Perception (TAPS)
- Test of Visual Perception (TVPS)
- Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised
- Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test
- Test for Auditory Comprehension of Language
Possible causes of dyslexia
Researchers haven’t yet pinpointed exactly what causes dyslexia. But they do know that genes and brain differences play a role. Here are some of the possible causes of dyslexia:
Genes and heredity: Dyslexia often runs in families . About 40 percent of siblings of people with dyslexia also struggle with reading. As many as 49 percent of parents of kids with dyslexia have it, too. Scientists have also found genes linked to problems with reading and processing language.
Brain anatomy and activity: Brain imaging studies have shown brain differences between people with and without dyslexia. These differences happen in areas of the brain involved with key reading skills. Those skills are knowing how sounds are represented in words, and recognizing what written words look like.
But the brain can change. Studies show that brain activity in people with dyslexia changes after they get proper instruction or tutoring. And scientists are learning more all the time.
- Watch a video about dyslexia and the brain .
- See how reading changes the brain .
- Take a peek inside a day in the life of a teen with dyslexia .
There are few tips one can use to handle dyslexic students:
As you have understood the signs of spotting the kid with dyslexia, you must also know that most of the successful people with dyslexia have said that their success is largely due to the practical and emotional support they received from their parents.
Don’t criticise them – The first step in helping them is by boosting their self-confidence before they can learn to overcome their difficulties. They have already experienced failure and deep down they often don’t believe they are capable of learning. To re-establish self-confidence provide the opportunity to succeed and give praise for small achievements.
Don’t ask them to read the contents aloud – Avoid asking a student with dyslexia to read aloud in front of the class. However, if you really need to get the student to read, discreetly let them know the previous day what section they will be asked to read so they can prepare it. This can be quite embarrassing for them as they are very likely to misread or skip words.
Don’t punish them for forgetting things – The students tend to forget things like books or sports kit so it’s better to write it down for them the previous day.
Don’t call them ‘lazy’ – So stop using the word lazy when dealing with the dyslexic student as they have to work more to produce results like an average student. It will be better if you can make their study time better by following few tricks:
Provide audio recordings for the student to use while reading the text.
Give the student a choice of what to read within selected genres, topics, and themes. High-interest reading facilitates comprehension and reading for pleasure.
Teach prefixes, suffixes, and root words to students to improve spelling, decoding, and comprehension.
Provide additional time to take tests.
Explain dyslexia to your child. At the same time, motivate them with love and support which will help them to achieve success in their future.